Nicaragua (i/ˌnɪkəˈrɑːɡwəˌ-ˈræ-ˌ-ɡjuə/; Spanish:[nikaˈɾaɣwa]), officially the Republic of Nicaragua (Spanish: República de Nicaragua), is the largest country in the Central Americanisthmus. The population of Nicaragua is slightly over 6million. Nicaragua's capital, Managua, is the third-largest city in Central America. The multi-ethnic population includes indigenous peoples, Europeans, Africans, Asians, and people of Middle Eastern origin. The main language is Spanish. Native tribes on the eastern coast speak their own languages.
The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century. Nicaragua gained independence from Spain in 1821. Since its independence, Nicaragua has undergone periods of political unrest, dictatorship, and fiscal crisis—the most notable causes that led to the Nicaraguan Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s. Nicaragua is a representative democratic republic.
The mixture of cultural traditions has generated substantial diversity in art and literature, particularly the latter given the literary contributions of Nicaraguan poets and writers, including Rubén Darío, Pablo Antonio Cuadra and Ernesto Cardenal. The biological diversity, warm tropical climate and active volcanoes make Nicaragua an increasingly popular tourist destination.
Located in the lowest part of Salento between Castro, Andrano and Diso, Marittima is about 48km from Lecce. The part of the country overlooking the coast is named Marina di Marittima
According to popular opinion, the name of the town is due to its proximity to the sea. In fact, the coast is only a kilometre from the town. It has also been claimed that the name is related to the founders of the area, who arrived by sea and would have been called marittimi; so Marittima indicates the place where they lived.
There is no definite information on the origins of the town although it is assumed that Marittima was founded or inhabited by the Messapi and that it suffered the same fate as its neighbours, Vaste, Diso and Castro, which were overtaken first by the Romans and then by the Byzantines, the Normans and Angevins.
The first written document confirming the presence of the settlement dates back to 1277; the Angevin registers from one year inform us of a certain "Rubeo de Soliaco" who was named "Lord of Casale Marittima".
In the feudal period, Marittima was part of Castro County which was under the control of various noble families including the Orsini Del Balzo, Gattinara, Ruiz De Castro and the Lopez De Zunica families. This control lasted until 1809 when the Rossi family became the owners of Marittima.